Saturday, June 20, 2020
The Burnt and the Cooked Binaries and Continua in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man - Literature Essay Samples
The Christmas dinner sceneÃ ¹s divisive political and moral debate in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man underlines an essential obstacle to the artistic mind of Stephen Dedalus. Ireland imposes a set of oppressive binariesÃâ¹namely in the form of religion and nationalismÃâ¹from which he can escape only through the ambiguity of language and his developing theory of the aesthetic. His progression to systems of continua over binaries also functions as implicit instruction from Joyce on how to read the novel. In a piece of art so consumed with its own internal order, the author acknowledges the textual value of a structural analysis, but only for the ideological content of the work. To ingest the tragic emotion of the novel, the reader needs to split the emotional binary of pity and terror and hold a face looking two ways (176). In other words, the reader may not process the emotion of the novel in a diagrammatic form, as he may, for example, when linking the ends and beg innings of chapters or the motif of the word ivory. From this continuum follow StephenÃ ¹s ideas on stasis and radiance by which, presumably, we should behold Portrait as a work of beauty.However, Joyce complicates his Janus-like theory with StephenÃ ¹s proclamation that the simplest form of art is the lyrical form, the form wherein the artist presents his image in immediate relation to himself (184). The next form, the epical, is merely the artistÃ ¹s image in mediate relation to himself and others (184). Portrait is, at its most basic level, the authorial framing of a younger selfÃ ¹s worldÃâ¹both self-interrogation and mediated surveillance of the self with othersÃâ¹and thus an ostensible aesthetic failure. The concluding project for Joyce, then, is the elevation of his literary adolescence beyond lyrical and epical autobiography and into the dramatic, in which the personality of the artistÃÅ finally refines itself out of existence (185). He can accomplish this only by applying the novelÃ ¹s concept of rhythm to the biographical conflation of Joyce and StephenÃâ¹the initial solipsistic and monochromatic deterrent to an imaginative dramatic aestheticÃâ¹as viewed through the kaleidoscopic lens of exile.When a taunting schoolmate asks Stephen whether or not he kisses his mother goodnight, Stephen first answers yes and, when his peers mock him, recants and is again met with derision. There is no way out for him, and the early lesson of impossible logic imprints itself on him: What was the right answer to the question? He had given two and still Wells laughed (10). To escape the laughter or, in other words, to claim his own voice and not heed those of others, Stephen must find a third way, a triangulation which opens up a multiplicity of non-exclusive answers. Language is a powerful signifier in Irish culture, as evidenced by both the content and form of the Christmas dinner. Dante opens the discussion with identity logic, arguing that a p riest must be a singular entity who relates a Manichean morality: Ãâ¹ÃÅ A priest would not be a priest if he did not tell his flock what is right and what is wrong (25). Joyce repeatedly emphasizes the tableÃ ¹s attention to the power of the word in the various rebuttals. Uncle Charles pleads Not another word now and Dante returns with Ãâ¹Nice language for any catholic to use! (25) Further attempts to conciliateÃâ¹Ãâ¹Nobody is saying a word against themÃâ¹are met by DanteÃ ¹s return to the oral interaction: Ãâ¹The bishops and priests of Ireland have spokenÃÅ and they must be obeyed (25). Dante, who appeals to Mrs. Dedalus with Ãâ¹You hear? reaffirms the importance of language as a vessel for memory and morality: Ãâ¹O, heÃ ¹ll remember all this when he grows up, said Dante hotlyÃâ¹the language he heard against God and religion and priests in his own home (27). Evidently, Stephen does, but even at an early age he has discovered a defense against accepting th e binary morality of priests.Joyce establishes StephenÃ ¹s first as a poetic mind, able to find beauty in ordinary usage of language. The author of the start of the novelÃ ¹s second episode is ambiguous, as the language is attuned to its own poetics (and thus, perhaps, StephenÃ ¹s own voice) but also to the overarching narrative:The wide playgrounds were swarming with boys. All were shouting and the prefects urged them on with strong cries. The evening air was pale and chilly and after every charge and thud of the foot-ballers the greasy leather orb flew like a heavy bird through the grey light. He kept on the fringe of his line, out of sight of his prefect, out of the reach of the rude feet, feigning to run now and then. (4)Structurally, many of the touches here are JoyceÃ ¹s work. StephenÃ ¹s terror at the end of the first episode is remedied through claustrophobic refuge under the table, and here the agoraphobia of the wide playgrounds juxtaposes his continuing fear. Just as Joyce is clearly in charge of contrasting closed with open and domestic with recreational, he also rhymes the word cries with StephenÃ ¹s poem from the end of the first episode (Pull out his eyes / Apologise ). But the internal tension of the words here shows a developing awareness of and expertise with linguistic play, and should be read as StephenÃ ¹s. Instead of the simple abba rhyme scheme of the apologise poem, the language here fractures itself in a more sophisticated fashion. The f/b sound of foot-ballers is reversed by the sequential pairing of orb and flew, but not before greasy leather, sandwiched between them, finds its alliterative match at the end of the sentence with grey light. The play is kept up with f and r sounds of the next sentence, beginning with fringe and finding more reversal with rude feet and feigning to run. Stephen sets up phonic chiasma whose crossed lines befuddle the binary; the Manichean world of black-and-white blurs as Stephen ext ends his tonal range into new harmonious and discordant octaves.When motifs develop across the novel and not just a passage, however, we must concede them to JoyceÃ ¹s structural control. StephenÃ ¹s later prediction that There would be cloudy grey light over the playground (20) and his eventual aesthetic triumph of Ãâ¹A day of dappled seaborne clouds reconfigure his growing sensitivity to his interior periodic prose under JoyceÃ ¹s own attention to periodicity, to the rhythmic pattern of the novel (143). The pun has always been a weapon of play, a double-edged sword that cuts into the ignorance of a monochrome world. Joyce wants his reader to combine appreciation of both narratological and linguistic structures. When Stephen notes that belt was also to give a fellow a belt, that the word functions as both a device of self-aid and as a violent action to others, we must remember this as Stephen experiments with other binaries (5). The printed names of cold and hot on the fa ucets in the school lavatory strike him as queer (7). That water, the most miscible of substances, should be defined only under two temperatures contradicts StephenÃ ¹s own recognition of the scale of degrees: He felt cold and then a little hot (7). At this point in the narrative, this information is just that, factual examples whose intellectual content outweighs any emotional connection we may feel to hot and cold.By StephenÃ ¹s late adolescence, he explores the same hot/cold binary within a far more intimate framework. When the dean of studies at his university asks Stephen if fire is beautiful, the studentÃ ¹s response bespeaks why he is, indeed, a student and not a priest: Ãâ¹ÃÅ In so far as it satisfies the animal craving for warmth fire is a good. In hell, however, it is an evil (159). The confining religious view of fire receives a jab here, and the reader feels something in StephenÃ ¹s response beyond a simple philosophical shift. The next paragraph again adds the intellectual fuel of JoyceÃ ¹s structural command to StephenÃ ¹s passionate voice: Like Ignatius [the dean] was lame but in his eyes burned no spark of IgnatiusÃ ¹ enthusiasm. Even the legendary craft of the company, a craft subtler and more secret than its fabled books of secret subtle wisdom, had not fired his soul with the energy of apostleship (160). The repetition of fire imageryÃâ¹burned no spark and fired his soulÃâ¹still uses the style indirecte as a means of extending the analytic and emotional reach of the words. The reader is able to face two ways.As the prose is a fusion of Joyce and Stephen, the novel maintains a vocal rhythm that coincides with StephenÃ ¹s theory of aesthetic appreciation of an object: ÃÅ you apprehend it as balanced part against part within its limits; you feel the rhythm of its structure. In other words, the synthesis of immediate perception is followed by the analysis of apprehension (183). By turns immediate perception and analyti c apprehension, Portrait, and its component episodes, are also selfbounded and selfcontained upon the immeasurable background of space or time which is not it (183). Yet, as we see from the progression of fire imagery, much is lost in the appreciation of the singular as opposed to the total. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, then, with its titular call to the reader to recognize its inherent artistic self-production, is a component part of two larger works: Ulysses and JoyceÃ ¹s own life. Although Joyce may not have known he would later write Ulysses, he probably did know that he would keep Stephen Dedalus as a recurring character in some later work, as he often spread his characters across several narratives (especially in Dubliners). In this sense of playing off Ulysses (especially the first three episodes featuring Stephen), Portrait achieves StephenÃ ¹s first definition of rhythmÃâ¹the relation of part to part in any esthetic whole (177). PortraitÃ ¹s episodic s tructure on its own satisfies StephenÃ ¹s second definitionÃâ¹the relation of an esthetic whole to its part (177). Viewing the entirety of Ulysses as the ocean and Portrait as the stream, Portrait finalizes StephenÃ ¹s definition of rhythm: the relation of any part to the esthetic whole of which it is a part (177). The autobiography of Portrait rises beyond the lyrical because it assumes the polyphony of Ulysses, and the lambent radiance of the shorter novelÃ ¹s fading coal retains heat from the fireplace of the epic.This may seem like specious reasoning; by this rationale, anything written now (such as this paper) has the potential to be a greater achievement by virtue of its placement within a future opus. A safer place to look for a reservoir is within JoyceÃ ¹s life after he left Dublin. The word polyphony has become a literary catch phrase that derives from its etymological roots of many voices. Gary Morson explains in Narrative Freedom: As Bahktin coined the term, a polyphonic novel is one in which a special relation obtains between author and hero. That relation allows the hero to be truly free, capable of surprising not only other characters but also the author. The problem of a conventional autobiography in presenting polyphony is that the author and central character are the same person, or altered versions from temporal distance, and the conversation remains monotonous (single-toned, not necessarily boring). Joyce nears solving this describing Stephen through an ironic filter. Two prime examples of this come in StephenÃ ¹s anticipation of an epiphany. In Chapter Two, Stephen fantasizes about meeting the unsubstantial image of Mercedes and, alone, surrounded by darkness and silence, being transfigured (54). The abrupt end of the episode leads to a scene of the Dedalus familyÃ ¹s evictionÃâ¹JoyceÃ ¹s realistic version of physical transfigurement, actual dislocation of the figure. An even more self-parodying irony occurs in Chapt er Four, when Stephen sees a bird shortly after deciding to free himself from religion:What did it mean? Was it a quaint device opening a page of some medieval book of prophecies and symbols, a hawklike man flying sunward above the sea, a prophecy of the end he had been born to serve and had been following through the mists of childhood and boyhood, a symbol of the artist forging anew in his workshop out of the slugging matter of the earth a new soaring impalpable imperishable being? (145)JoyceÃ ¹s vivisection of his own literary techniques and of the readerÃ ¹s ability to read the text highlights an essential difference between JoyceÃ ¹s irony and typical autobiographical irony. Joyce is not simply an older, wiser version of Stephen. Exile has changed him; although the final image from StephenÃ ¹s diary is that of the smithy of my soul, the artist still must forgeÃÅ the uncreated conscience of his race (219). He must make something out of nothing, and not just alter the p reexisting. Exile is StephenÃ ¹s only option of escaping the chorus around him, and Joyce makes the reader understand that exile is a way, ultimately, of silencing the pernicious effects of those voices on the expatriate. Exile has given Joyce the ability to understand his former self such that his irony is a result of having shed his sagging accouterments of personality. Joyce is no longer Stephen Dedalus; the ironic distance is the span of knowing a character so intimately, but still being able to reject the dual movements of desire and loathing and beholding the character with objective stasis. James Joyce is Stephen DedalusÃ ¹s as yet uncreated conscience, and the final continuumÃâ¹that of an author who can slide toward or away from his subject with easeÃâ¹moves Portrait out of the genre of autobiography and into that of tragic drama.Works Cited:Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. USA: Barnes Noble Books, 1999.Morson, Gary Saul. Narrative and Fre edom: The Shadows of Time. New Haven and London: Yale UP, 1994. 91.
Sunday, June 7, 2020
Homosexuality has existed for many years. Majority of the time homosexuals get criticized and are viewed as sinners. People still dont understand what homosexuality is, and what causes a person to be homosexual. Braverman (1973) in her book gives a description and definition of what homosexuality is. She mentions that homosexuality is an erotic preference for individuals of ones own sex. Nowadays individuals who identify themselves as homosexuals call themselves gay (Bravermen, 1973). There are many stereotypes and myths about homosexuality. People believe that these individuals are homosexuals because they arent sure what their gender identity is. When in reality, gender identity is a whole different topic. Another myth or stereotype is that homosexuals are pedophiles, but there is no evidence or studies that support this claim. Homosexuals are normal humans just like everyone else, they are ordinary people with ordinary interests (Bravermen, 1973). Although it is hard to understand and really know how these individuals feel. There have been plenty of models that scientists have created. One of these models is Casss Model of Homosexual Identity Formation. This model is based on the assumptions that homosexuality is something that occurs between the individual and the environment (Kenneady Oswalt, 2014). There are six stages to this model. The very first stage focuses on consciousness awareness, in which the individual notices his behavior and feelings are different from what society and the norm is. The second stage to this model is identity comparison. This is when the individual accepts he/she is homosexual and feels good to be identified as homosexual. In this stage the person can also deny his sexual preferences (Kenneady Oswalt, 2014). The third stage is identity tolerance. This stage is when individuals start to look for others whose sexual preference is the same. This makes them have a higher self-esteem and create clos e relationships with people who they can identify with. The following stage is identity acceptance. This stage is when the individual has a more positive self-image of themselves. The next stage is identity pride; which explains how these individuals start feeling pride for their sexual preferences. At this stage individuals become more informed about homosexuality. The last stage is identity synthesis. This is when individuals are fully identified as homosexual, and they see it as an important part of their image. This is when they fully comprehend why they feel a certain way, and they start to feel good about themselves even though people might seem them as different (Kenneady Oswalt, 2014). This model is one of many others that try to inform what homosexuals have to go through, and what their process is. Although it doesnt explain why individuals are homosexuals it does provide beneficial information to understand them better. Nowadays there has been many theories and studies that try to explain what causes individuals to feel sexually attracted by members of their own sex. There has been a lot of controversy on whether homosexuality is something individuals are born with, or something that they choose to be. There are studies that prove that sexual orientation is a choice, because these individuals change their sexual orientation. The biological side of this issue focuses more on explaining genetic differences in homosexuals and heterosexual men. Some of these experiments have focused on studying the brain, fraternal birth order research, genetic scanning, and many others. There has been plenty of studies that focus on proving the biological side of homosexuality. Although the studies are scientific, there are a couple of problems that make the studies not one hundred percent reliable. One of those studies was done by Bogaert (2003). In this study they researched the relationship or correlation between body size, fraternal birth order, and sexual orientation (Bogaert, 2003). Their results showed that there is a relationship between late birth order and homosexuality in males. Which results in homosexual men having a bigger number of brothers than heterosexuals. The study didnt find any significant correlation between sexual preferences and body weight. Although the study proved that fraternal birth order in biological brothers had a correlation with homosexuality, the study can be weakened because the results arent generalizable. The results of this study are only applicable to biological male brothers and cannot be applicable to biological sisters. T he results show that males are the only ones that are affected by this phenomenon but not females. If the results of a study are not able to be generalizable to all the population then the study can present certain limitations, and it affects the accuracy and reliability of the results. Another flaw in this study was found by Jones Kwee (2018), they mention that the sample used was nonrepresentative. The sample of this study was enlisted from the Toronto Gay Pride Parade and other LGBT communities (Jones Kwee, 2018). Nonrepresentative samples affects the study because this sample can cause many biases. One of those problems this sample caused is that later-born gay men was overrepresented because the sample they got was from a Gay Parade, which is obvious that these gay men have officially came out as homosexuals and are proud of their sexual orientation. (Jones Kwee, 2018). This sample could have been overrepresenting the later-born gay men and underrepresenting the earlier-born gay men at the Parade. This can result in naturally exaggerating the fraternal birth order effect in this sample (Jones Kwee, 2018). Although the results of the study proved that fraternal birth order research is correlated with homosexuality, the sample they used was biased because the y only gathered their sample from the Toronto Gay Pride Parade. This makes the study questionable whether if the findings are accurate or not. Gavrilets, Friberg, Rice (2018) criticizes and gives many reasons why the Fraternal Birth Order Effect is not the main explanation of homosexuality. The FBOE focuses on explaining homosexuality by using the fraternal birth order. Although it has good evidence, the problem with this theory is that it cant explain homosexuality in individuals that dont have any older brothers (Gavrilets, et al., 2018). Another reason is that the FBOE cant explain female homosexuality. There hasnt been any evidence that shows that the FBOE theory also works for female homosexuality. Gavrilets et al. (2018) points out that the FBOE is inconsistent because there is a low concordance of sexual preferences in twins. Since these brothers are twins they should both be equally affected because they have the same genes and were developed in the same fetal environment (Gavrilets et al., 2018). Another reason why FBOE cant be the explanation for homosexuality is because the researchers have made many predictio ns that have not been tested. Some of these predictions is that there is a higher number of homosexuals in more religious families, and that this will result in homosexuals having a larger number of offspring. Another prediction is that there will be a higher number of homosexuals in nonWestern societies where the families are usually large (Gavrilets et al., 2018). These predictions have not been tested, which makes the study run into some problems. Although the FBOE seemed to be in the right path to explain homosexuality, it still needs many things to work on before its findings can be generalizable to all the homosexual population. Another study that points out the biological side of homosexuality was written by, Mustanski et al. (2005). This study is one of the first studies that reports a full genome scan of sexual orientation in men (Mustanski et al., 2005). The purpose of this study was to find if there is any correlation between genetics and sexual orientation in men. The sample of this study was gathered through advertisements. They utilized individuals from 146 families, 73 families were previously studied by other experimenters. The other 73 families were new families not previously tested (Mustanski et al., 2005). There are some sample biased found in this study because the samples were found through advertisements through local homophile publications. In these advertisements the researchers clearly stated that the purpose of the study was to look for genetic factors in homosexual men. Since the subjects recruited are volunteering themselves, they can influence the results because the subjects can be inclined to favor the study. This can be considered limitations to the study because the participants can intentionally affect the results, which will become a problem when trying to generalize the findings (Jones Kwee, 2018). Another aspect to have in mind is that the results of this study showed that there was no evidence of a linkage relationship in the Xq28 region to homosexuality. This is interesting because the original study that was done by Hamer (1993) found that the Xq28 region of the X chromosome was linked to homosexuality. This can cause the credibility of this study to be questionable because Mustanski et al. (2005) wasnt able to replicate the previous findings. Another problem with this study was that the media headlined that Mustanski et al. (2005) had found specific chromosomes (7, 8, and 10) to be linked to homosexuality. When in reality Mustanski et al. (2005) mentions that they found two regions for suggestive linkage and one region of near significance. They never stated that these chromosomes were one hundred percent linked to homosexuality. Overall, their findings werent proven to have statistical significance. Although this study showed some evidence, in the future there should be replications of this study to show that the findings are significantly important. Another study that has taken place was written by Byne et al. (2001). This study focuses on human brain structure, and whether there is any good evidence that suggests that the brain has a relationship with sexual orientation. They examined the human hypothalamus and looked for any differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals. Their results showed that there was a difference in the interstitial nuclei of the human anterior hypothalamus (INAH1Ã¢â¬Å"4) in heterosexual men than women (Byne, et al., 2001). Although the researchers thought these results meant something important for their study, it didnt. The differences in INAH1-4 didnt mean that males had a bigger size or a denser neuron. It just meant that women have fewer neurons in that specific area (Jones Kwee, 2018). The findings were not significant to the study because the difference in INAH1-4 wasnt important. The researchers also found that the INAH3 volume of homosexual males wasnt much different from heterosexual males and heterosexual females. Which basically means that the differences in INAH3 were not statistically significant in comparing heterosexual males or females. Byne et al. (2001) states sexual orientation cannot be reliably predicted on the basis of INAH3 volume alone. Researchers concluded that even if they had found a significant difference between the INAH3 of homosexuals and heterosexuals, it wouldnt have mattered, because they cant predict that homosexuality has a correlation with INAH3. This is not enough evidence to make this type of statement. Later in the study, researchers found out that the nonsignificant difference they had found earlier in heterosexual and homosexual men was not attributable to numbers of neurons, because homosexual and heterosexual men were found to have comparable number of neurons (Jones Kwee, 2018). This makes the study step on a limb becau se the findings they had made werent useful. Although the study doesnt show any differences between homosexuals and heterosexual men, there is probably a difference, but this difference might not be the same as the one between males and females. Another problem with this study was that Byne et al. (2001) mentions that if these differences exist, they dont mean that they are proof of prenatal, or that they biologically determine sexual orientation. Although the differences in INAH3 might be caused by prenatal hormones, there is a chance that other differences might emerge later in the development and the neurons that survive become part of the circuit (Byne et al., 2001). This means that although there might be a difference in INAH3, it doesnt mean that its something biological or something they are born with, because there are other variables that might influence this difference. Many of these differences can mean the result of learning and not necessarily something biological. Based on this study, it is obvious that there isnt sufficient evidence to affirm that there is a relationship between brain structure and sexual orientation. There have also been studies that explain homosexuality as a choice, and people decide their sexual preferences. These researchers believe that homosexuality is something people choose to be and not something they are born with. One of these researchers has made multiple studies on sexual preference and homosexuality. One of the many longitudinal studies by Diamond (2003) focuses on homosexual women who were interviewed three times in a 5-year period. The purpose of the study was to see if these women would relinquish their sexual identity in the 5-year period that the study took place. The aim of the study was also to see if by relinquishing their sexual identity they would have different histories, attractions, and behaviors (Diamond, 2003). There were 80 non-heterosexual women who participated in the study. They interviewed the participants before and after the 5-year process. The results of the study showed that over the 5-year period; one fourth of the women relinquished their l esbian or bisexual identities. Half of these women went back to being heterosexual, and the other half stopped labeling their sexual identity (Diamond, 2003). This study proves that homosexuality is a choice. If homosexuality was something that people are born with, they wouldnt be able to change it whenever they felt like it. The study proves that these women changed their sexual identity because they had the choice to do it. They were able to do it because they are the ones that decide what sexual orientation they are better identified with. Another study by Diamond (2000) also proves that homosexuality is something people have the choice to decide. This study is similar to the other study previously mentioned, but the difference is that it was only a 2-year period. There were 80 women who participated in this study. The researcher gathered the information via interviewing the subjects. The results of the study showed that although there was general stability in their sexual attraction, half of the women reported they had changed their sexual identity (Diamond, 200). This evidence demonstrates sexual identity is chosen and not biological. Warren (2014) in her article mentions that choice is the only thing that sets us apart from animals and plants. She explains that as humans we choose thousands of things. One of those choices is what sexual orientation people prefer. Humans are able to choose if they want to come out as gay or if they want to stay heterosexual. It doesnt matter if a person is gay or straight, they still have the right to make choices (Warren, 2014). Both of the studies conducted by Diamond proved that these individuals can change their sexual orientation, and that homosexuality its not something biological. Another
Monday, May 18, 2020
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2072 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? 1.3 Definitions of equity: Equity is the owners interest into the firm or business as on preferred stock or common stock. It is equal to the total assets less total liabilities it is called as the net book value or the net worth or the shareholders equity. There is a real state so there is difference between the property owners and the owners owes against that property. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Raising capital through private equity" essay for you Create order The future trading context there is a value for the for the securities in the accounts. At the going price it may be liquidate. The values of securities are deducting the margins. Preferred stock and the common stock as the ownership Interest in a firm. Equity is also called the shareholders value, book value or net worth into the company. There is fairness in law for the equity. The out standing mortgage loan is deduct from the value of the property. 1.4 Features of equity: The tem equity describe the ownership of equity ownership is represented by the share that give their holder apart or a share of a enterprise. Equity share are called from different names as the common stock in U.S and mainly ordinary shares elsewhere. Equity also includes instrument that give their holder their holder the right to subscribe for the common stock in the company at sometime in the future. Both share options issued by a company and share warrants give their holder the right. Options and warrants can be described as delayed equity because they might be used to create new equity shares. But not until in some future date. There is also a view that convertible bonds and convertible preferred stocks are equity shares of the company at a future date at a specified rate of conversion. if the holder of the convertibles exercise their right of conversion. The company must issue new ordinary shares. Many corporate treasures stock market analysts would argue that irredeemable preferred stocks is also the form of equity because they are the permanent part of permanent share capital of the company. The definition of equity is not clear cut and some securities and instruments are more properly regarded as hybrids part debt and part equity .the equity investment in accompany is represented in accounting terms within its balance sheet . equity capital is the net worth of the company consisting of its total asset less its liabilities to creditors and other providers of capital the net assets of the business. In the balance sheet equity capital is represented by the ordinary shareholders share capital at nominal price and the reserves such as the share premium accont revaluation reserves and retainrd profits accounts. How ever the accontig valuation of assets particularly fixed assets is notoriously unreliable and the equity investment in a company cannot be measured reliably by balance sheet values. 1.5 What do I need the equity capital for? If u wants to expand your business then you need money for this and which you can raise from the investors those who are agree to invest their money in your firm. Every one wants to increase the finance of his company. To raise the equity finance sometime it is very costly and expensive for the firm. The companies avoid getting loan from the financial institutes. Because there is interest on the loans are too much that are not affordable by the companies. Chapter 3 raising capital through private equity 3.1 Introduction of private equity Private equity History The private equity concept has been launched in 1946. At that time When the American institute American research and development authority decided to give confidence to the private sector. They raise equity for the soldiers of the world war 11.While the ARD had trouble inspiring any private interest in the venture ended up finish; they are major because this marked the first documented time in it is the first time in the history that an institute of this type has been introduced. Definition Private equity is in fact a very broad term, used to define types of funds or investments. The term signifies the source of the money as opposed to the form which the money takes on. As the name suggests, private equity is private, i.e.: it is not reachable in public markets, such as the stock exchange. One definition of private equity that is in use is Investing in no-publicly held securities through a negotiated process, (Banc 2004).This definition is fairly descriptive in that it becomes clear that the process is indeed negotiated; the return on the investment varies and the proportion of the companys profits that the investor keeps is arranged between the investor and the enterprise. The Indian Case The private equity is recently introduced in india if we see back in preveious century 90s decade. There is boom, boom on private equity in 1990s with corporations spend (and receiving huge amount for them) with their funds. In the last years In recent years, there has been a revival of these firm, within india there is boom on the firms of india infrastructure and sciences, real and infrastructure growth up these days in india. such as Warburg Pincers which works globaly, Blackstone and the Carlyle Group also workls in india while Indian pl gamers like ChrysCapital and ICICI Venture also have a great presence. equity 3.2 categories of private equity: 3.2.1 Leveraged buyout: drawing of the fundamental structure of a basic leveraged buyout transaction. Leveraged buyout, BO or Buyout refers to a strategy of creation equity funds as element of a transaction in which, business or commerce unit a company assets is purchased from the existing Shareholders normally with the use of financial leverage. The enterprises interested in tis type of transactions these companies are ,mature an The companies mixed up in such Transactions are usually mature and make operating cash flows. In leveraged buyout a sponsor is involve to sponsored for acquiring the business with out committing to invest all the capital for the acquisition of business . . for doing this, the sponsor will move up Acquisition debt which finally looks to the cash flows of the acquirement target to make Principal payments and interest Acquisition debt is given to sponsor who has financed in business and there is no grantee of investment invested by the sponsors. . In all that this structure is attractive to the investors who have limited funds and not spend more than this. Greatly warning the degree of choice of that leverage, allowing them the benefits of leverage. There are two types of this kind of finance and those are much important for us. (1) The sponsor also not want to more on the acquisition of asset he does not pay more than the debt (2) The returns of the investor is more than that of the cost of debt. the amount of debt used for transaction costs vary according to the financial circumstance and market situation history of the achievement target,. As a percentage of the purchase price for a leverage buyout target, s, the willingness of lenders to expand credit (both to the LBOsfinancia sponsors and the business to be purchase)as such the liabilities and the interest of the company cover all debt costs . Historically the portion of the debt LBO will vary from 50%-80% 3.2.2 VETURE CAPITAL: venture capital is yh subheading of private equity and it is only used in less mature fir,ms, for the open, expansion and early development, of business it is mmostly used in nrw firms those which are at their initial stage , new products and new marketing concepts venture capital fund is expand the business these funds are required at the launching of the business and more ofenly used at the initially stage of the firm . this is used for the expansion of business venture capital provide the funds to the business. So the venture capital is used motly and are also expensve for business. So it is the big drawback of it. Entrepreneurs often require considerable capital during the Shaping stages of their business life cycles. For the developing of products and ideas that Many entrepreneurs do not have adequate funds. To funding projects themselves, and they must therefore look for outside financing .The venture Capitalists need to distribute high returns to reimburse for the risk of these savings makes Venture funding an costly capital resource for companies. Venture capital is most appropriate for Businesses with huge up-front capital necessities which cannot be financed by cheaper substitute such as debt. Although venture capital is habitually most closely related with fast- Growing technology biotechnology, and fields, venture financial support has been used for other more conventional businesses 3.2.3 CAPITA GROWTH: Most often marginal investments capital refers to equity investments, that are looking for restructure operations, capital to expand, finance a chief acquirement without a change of control or in relatively mature companies enter into new markets or of the business. These corporations are likely to be much more mature than venture capital funded Companies, citation required business that seek development capital will often do so in order to finance a transformational even tin their life cycle. Growth capital can also be used to affect a reformation of a corporations balance sheet, for reducing the cost the company has its own balance sheet. Any company able to generate the funds according to its need and for the acquisition of the assets also for the expansion of business. Investments are usually made in the shape of convertible e or preferred security 3.2.4 DISTRESSED AND SPECIAL SITUATION: Securities of fiscally stressed corporations. Distressed or Special Situations is a waste topic for the spending of business The distressed category encompasses two Broad sub-strategies including: The distressed strategies has two sub types loan for own strategies or how to control the distressed situation. the companies acquire debt through this the securities may merge. Beyond the private equity strategies the private equity has also hedge funds which has a variety of distressed funds or investment strategies. 3.2.5 MEZZENINE: Mezzanine capital or Preferred equity securities refers to subordinated debt that often represents which are enable to access the high yield market that are often used by smaller companies , allows the most junior fraction of a companys capital structure that is senior to the companys common equity. Equity capital required to finance major expansion or leveraged buyout . this kind of loan is provided by banks and the companies want a big return against the loans than other senior lenders. 3.2.6 SECONDARIES: The investment which is made in the existing equity asset is called the secondariesthese transaction invovlve the portfolio of direct investment or the interest sale of private equity the acquisition of invest for the existin business units. The private equity is more liquid than the other long term loans . investors has the capability to grown up the vintage diversification secondaries are experienced class from the different cash flows many big corporation acquire private equity for the business and these transactions are made through third parties private equity funds are raise through these methods. 3.2.7 OTHER STRATEGEIS: Other strategies that can be considered a close adjacent market or private equity include Real Estate: Private equity will typically refer to the riskier end of the investment spectrum including opportunity funds and value added where the investments frequently more closely resemble leveraged buyout than traditional real estate investments. Real estate to be a separate asset class is considered by the certain investors in private equity. Infrastructure: the investments in a variety of public works ,that are made typically as part of a privatization initiative on the part of a government entity (e.g., public transportation, bridges, toll roads, tunnels, airports, and other public works). . 3.2.8 Private equity funds: This section needs additional citation s for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unisource material may becalm l edged and Removed. (August 2009) Private equity fundraising refers to the action of private equity firms seeking capital from Investors for their funds. Typically an investor will invest in a specific fund managed by a firm, average fund. In 2005here were 25 investors in the average private equity fund, this figure has Now grown-up to 52 according to reign ltd. (formerly known as Private Equity Intelligence). The managers of private equity funds will also invest in their own vehicles, classically providing Between 1-4% of often private equity finance managers will employ the services of outdoor fundraising teams. known as placement negotiator in order to raise capital for their business.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
1. What problems did Enron encountered? Many went sour in the early months of 2001 as EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s stock price and debt rating imploded because of loss of investor and creditor trust Methods the company used to disclose (or creatively obscure) itÃ¢â¬â¢s complicated financial dealings were erroneous and, in the view of some, downright deceptive The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of transparency in reporting its financial affairs, followed by financial restatements disclosing billions of dollars of omitted liabilities and losses, contributed to its demise 2. How did the management react? Enron did not report debt on its balance sheet. Through collaboration with major banks, SPEs borrowed money, often with direct or indirect guarantees from Enron. The cash wasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When similar transactions cannot be identified and active markets do not exist, the auditor has the unsolvable problem of finding a way to know the intent of the party controlling the transaction. 4. How did they react? The Enron implosion has wreaked more havoc on the accounting profession than any other case in U.S. history. Critics in the media, Congress and elsewhere are calling into question not only the adequacy of U.S. disclosure practices but also the integrity of the independent audit process. The general public still questions how CPA firms can maintain audit independence while at the same time engaging in consulting work, often for fees that dwarf those of the audit. The CEOs of the Big Five accounting firms made a joint statement on December 4 committing to develop improved guidance on disclosure of related party transactions, SPEs and market risks for derivatives including energy contracts for the 2001 reporting period. In addition, the Big Five called for modernization of the financial reporting system in the United States to make it more timely and relevant, including more nonfinancial information on entity performance. 5. Give your opinion in the case. For me, it is so disappointing that everyone in Enron was in on the scam including the top management, directors, internal and external
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The world is filled with many different types of societies and cultures. This is due to the fact that many people share dissimilar beliefs and ideas, as well as diverse ways of life. People lived under different circumstances and stipulations, therefore forming cultures and societies with ideas they formulated, themselves. These two factors, society and culture, are what motivate people to execute the things that they do. Many times, however, society and culture can cause downgrading effects to an assemblage if ever it is corrupt or prejudiced. Society and culture not only influences the emotions individuals have toward things like age differences, religion, power, and equality but also the actions they perform as a result. People ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The laws that one society has may only support one type of religion as another may support a different one. When cultures intertwine and mix, varied feelings will be felt and unpleasant actions may be the outcome from them. Take the story of Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe, for example. In the story, the Ibo people were living in harmony and went about their daily routines until the English men arrived and damaged everything. They brought a new religion, Christianity, which had completely different concepts than the one that the Ibo tribe had been following. Many converted and chose to join the world of the Christians while the others stayed loyal to their culture. Ã¢â¬Å"He went back to the churchÃ¢â¬ ¦ He would return later to his mother and his brothers and sisters and convert them to the new faithÃ¢â¬ (Achebe152). Nwoye was allured to this new way of life showed to them, and as an outcome, he joined the English men. By the end of this story, the whole Ibo culture was obliterated and destroyed. Their way of life became but a memory in the history of the world. Culture cannot only change the views one has on religion, but it can also destroy that faith. The way a society is run and how things are enforced also can cause negative feelings towards power. It can cause many to rebel if they feel that a leader has too much control, and it can also make people covet and desire such strength leaders have. In Julius Caesar, CassiusShow MoreRelatedLiterary Terms3784 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesRumpelstiltskin. Example: I have seen my head . . . brought in upon a platter is an allusion to the execution of St. John the Baptist. Example: In the room women come and go, talking of Michelangelo is an allusion the famous artist Michelangelo. Example: No, I am not Prince Hamlet is an allusion to Shakespeares play, Hamlet. Please write two sentences, each of which uses an allusion. the allusion and then share with a neighbor. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________Read MoreRastafarian79520 Words Ã |Ã 319 PagesIncludes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-19-513376-5 1. Rastafari movement. 2. JamaicaÃ¢â¬âReligious life and customs. I. Title. BL2532.R37 E36 2002 299Ã¢â¬ ².676Ã¢â¬âdc21 2002074897 v To Donnaree, my wife, and Donnisa, my daughter, the two persons around whom my life revolves; and to the ancestors whose struggles have enabled us to survive and thrive This page intentionally left blank Foreword One of the most useful things about Ennis Edmondss Rastafari: From Outcasts to Culture
The issue of black slavery has been a thorny issue in the American society for so many years. The history of black slavery dates back to the time after the United States attained its independence and continued until just before the American civil war. Black slavery was made possible by the American constitution that made it legal for the white people to own black slaves. Slave trade ensured a constant supply of slaves from the African continent with the most affected part being West Africa. Hence, a great number of black people got to the United States of America to serve as slaves in farms owned by the white people. The whole process of black slavery has since caused a lot of things to happen in the United States of America (Koger 56). The desperate situations that the black slaves encountered have since been recorded by historians and writers. Many books have been written on the experiences of the black slaves in the United States of America. Some of the books shall be discussed in this paper. These ones reveal the fundamental dimensions of the issue of black slavery. History has recorded that the black people got to the United States city of New York in the 17th century. Evidence of black slavery was reported in New York city even before the United States got its independence. Someone might wonder how comes that as early as the year 1626, some black men could be found thousands and thousands of miles away in a place called New York city. Besides that, another question onShow MoreRelatedSlavery in America941 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSlavery in America Does anyone know who really started slavery? Slavery first took place in North America, 1619 at a British colony of Jamestown VirginiaÃ¢â¬ (Boles, John). This caused slavery to spread throughout the American colonies. Slavery had a huge impact on America and still does till this day. Slavery was nothing new when it came to America. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been going on since before the 1400Ã¢â¬â¢s.Ã¢â¬ Slavery had existed in Europe from classical times and did not disappear with the collapse of the Roman EmpireÃ¢â¬ Read MoreThe Legacy Of President Abraham Lincoln998 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreason for war was to end slavery. He is credited with freeing the slaves because of his emancipation proclamation. This eventually brings and end to the institution, but should we really credit this all to Lincoln? Was Lincoln the only one to recognize the moral issues with slavery and destroy it with one single blow? African Americans are overlooked when talking about their emancipation but they wer e some of the strongest advocates for the end to slavery and without them slavery would not have endedRead MoreThe Fundamental Diffferences Between the Black Abolitionists and the White Abolitionists Movements1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFundamental Differences Between the Black Abolitionists and the White Abolitionists Movements Black and white abolitionists shared common assumptions about the evil of slavery, the virtue of moral reform, and the certainty of human progress(1). Schor, Garnet,1877, Lanngston, 1989). This shared understanding provided the basic for the interracial solidarity and cooperation so vital in the crusade against slavery(2). (Schor and Garnet, 1877). But blacks also brought a distinct perspectiveRead MoreThe Issues and Impacts of Slavery in Jeffersons Republic Essay1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe Past issues were brought up about the Jefforsonian Republican ideology and the impacts of slavery upon it. The chapter included a secondary source from the author Ronald T. Tanaka correctly named, Within the ÃâBowels of the Republic that identified the issues surrounding Thomas Jeffersons views on slavery in the post-revolution era. Tanaka took an in-depth view on the state of slavery after the American Revolution and the issues Jefferson faced as a result of the slavery of blacks and theRead MoreThe Root Of The War Between The States1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstands out for being the most divisive: slavery. Its presence and lack of deeply affected three other divisive cultural aspects: ethnicity, social class, and labor. These four issues, how they interacted, evolved, how the North and South viewed them is what laid the foundation of the road to war and beyond. However before addressing the beyond the paper will address the SouthÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint. Central to the SouthÃ¢â¬â¢s perception was the institution of slavery. Slavery was the keystone of Southern societyRead MoreThe Fundamental Diffferences Between The Black Abolitionists And The White Abolitionists Movements1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFundamental Differences Between the Black Abolitionists and the White Abolitionists Movements Black and white abolitionists shared common assumptions about the evil of slavery, the virtue of moral reform, and the certainty of human progress(1). Schor, Garnet,1877, Lanngston, 1989). This shared understanding provided the basic for the interracial solidarity and cooperation so vital in the crusade against slavery(2). (Schor and Garnet, 1877). But blacks also brought a distinct perspectiveRead MoreWhat Are The Characteristics Of Slavery In The New York States969 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesabundant and strong. Much of New York State was described as a Ã¢â¬Å"hot bedÃ¢â¬ for abolitionists and the abolitionist movement. Fredrick Douglas published his paper there and parts of the Underground Railroad went through there to go to Canada. However, while slavery was illegal in the state, it still played an integral part in the state, especially New York City. New York City was heavily involved with the south, as the goods that slaves produced were sold through New York City to Europe. Eu ropean nations broughtRead MoreThe Civil War : Opposing Slavery1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBefore the Civil War: Opposing Slavery Ã¢â¬Å"By 1860, the South contained more slaves than all the other slave societies in the New World combinedÃ¢â¬â¢ (Roark, 331). Slavery was the backbone of the American Southern statesÃ¢â¬â¢ economy, a highly controversial topic, and eventually the cause of the American Civil war. Even before the Civil War, there were many American groups who opposed slavery. In the early 19th century there were several forces that opposed slavery, both in the North and the South, they usedRead MoreThe Legacy Of The American Civil War1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestopics such as slavery had been considered to be the root of the War Between the States. All of these subjects are actually just facets of one and that is culture. The idea that the American Civil War was the result of divergent and clashing northern and southern cultures is one that is valid, sound, and supported. Culture affects how people perceive themselves, others, and the world. Of the many aspects of American culture there are a few that stand out for being the most divisive: slavery, ethnicityRead More Positions of Blacks in the Civil War and Emancipation Essay1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letters, U.S., let him get an eagle on his button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pockets, and there is no power on earth which can deny that he has earned the right to citizenship in the United States. The quote mentioned above was proclaimed by African American abolitionist Frederick Douglass, and served as motivation for African Americans to enlist in the UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s Army efforts and take an initiative in their future. With
MombasaÃ¢â¬â¢s history dates back to the 16th century, and it has been ruled by the Portuguese, Arabs and British-which have all influenced the townÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and the attractions that still exist including historical ruins such as Fort Jesus and the Old Town. Fort Jesus remains the biggest remnant of MombasaÃ¢â¬â¢s history when it was dominated by the Portuguese. Fort Jesus still contains cells where the slaves were held, and various artifacts from that era in the museum at the Fort. In addition to the evidence in the Fort, there also is a town bell located in Nyali just as you exit the Nyali Bridge. The bell was rung to inform the locals to hide from the slave capturers who were fast approaching. A walk through the narrow winding streets of Old Town can also provide a sense of daily life several hundred years ago. Old Town takes visitors back through time to illustrate facets of early Swahili culture, influenced by the presence of the Omani Arabs in the town. We will write a custom essay sample on Mombassa or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In tandem with Muslim-influenced architecture, one can find traces of the Indian and British colonial past. Many houses in the Old Town are modeled on ancient Swahili designs, of which a defining feature tends to doors with intricately carved designs. Some of these designs are also found on the furniture in upscale hotels. A walk through Old Town can yield some fascinating insights into the traditional Swahili culture, and clearly illustrate the Muslim influence on the town and its inhabitants. Colonial buildings from the British era are also scattered throughout the city. The famous Ã¢â¬Å"Mombasa TusksÃ¢â¬ are located in the centre of town Ã¢â¬â the two pairs of crossed tusks formed a ceremonial arch to commemorate the coronation of Elizabeth II in 1953 II. Economic Analysis Mombasa is a major trade centre and home to Kenyas only large seaport, the Kilindini Harbor. Kilindini is an old Swahili term meaning deep. The port is so called because the channel is naturally very deep. Kilindini Harbor is an example of a natural geographic phenomenon called a ria, formed millions of years ago when the sea level rose and engulfed a river that was flowing from the mainland. Mombasa is the centre of coastal tourism in Kenya. Mombasa Island itself is not a main attraction, although many people visit the Old Town and Fort Jesus. Mombasas northern shoreline is renowned for its vibrant 24-hour entertainment offers, including both family entertainment (water parks, cinemas, bowling, etc. , sports (water sports, mountain biking and go karting), culinary offers (restaurants offering a wide range of specialties from Kenya, China, Japan, India, Italy, Germany and other countries) and night life(bars, pubs, clubs, discotheques, etc). Other local industries include an oil refinery and the Bamburi Cement factory. The major intercontinental undersea telecom cables reach shore next to Mombasa, connecting East Africa to the rest of the world and supporting a fast-growing call centre business in the area. Economic summary GDP: $17. 43 billion (2005) at Market Price. $ 41. 6 billion (Purchasing Power Parity, 2006), There exists an informal economy that is never counted as part of the official GDP figures. Annual growth rate: 5. 8% (2005): 2006 = 6. 1% Per capita income: Per Capita Income (PPP) = $1,200 Natural resources: Wildlife, land (5% arable) Agricultural produce : tea, coffee, sugarcane, horticultural products, corn, wheat, rice, sisal, pineapples, pyrethrum, dairy products, meat and meat products, hides, skins Industry :petroleum products, grain and sugar milling, cement, beer, soft drinks, textiles, vehicle assembly, paper and light manufacturing, tourism III. Market Audit and Competitive Market Analysis I. Introduction The coastal city of Mombasa is one of AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s major tourist destinations, with some of the best beaches in the world. Located on KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢s Eastern coastline bordering the Indian Ocean, Mombasa has become popular for its exotic beaches, diverse marine life, world-class hotels and friendly people. Mombasa has undoubtedly one of the best white sandy beaches in Africa. The warm waters of the Indian Ocean cater to all types of tourists: those looking for a quiet swim, a place for kids to play, deep-sea fishing, and water sports activities such as scuba diving and sailing. In addition to its beautiful beaches, Mombasa offers a diverse cultural history. The City traces many of its cultural traditions to former Portuguese, Arab and British settlers Ã¢â¬â all of which have left a lasting influence on the CityÃ¢â¬â¢s food, architecture, and people. Tours of the town, safaris in game parks, and camping trips can all be included in your vacation plan. Nightlife in Mombasa is always exciting, and the City offers many dance clubs and casinos that cater to a variety of entertainment tastes. Or, you can always catch a movie at the cinema, go bowling, or grab a drink at the local pub. Mombasa is also home to a variety of different languages, the most common being Swahili and English. Most visitors Ã¢â¬â particularly those who speak German, French, or Dutch Ã¢â¬â will also have no problems communicating in the City. There is diversity in the cuisine available to visitors, including a host of quality restaurants offering everything from British, Chinese, Indian and Italian cuisine, to a variety of local and traditional Kenyan dishes. Given its ocean-side location, seafood options are abundant and outstanding and can often be eaten within a couple of hours of being caught. II. The product Launch of VIVANTA Hotels and Resorts by Taj in Mombasa About the Group Vivanta by Taj Hotels Resorts span options for the work-hard-play-hard traveler across metropolitan cities, other commercially important centers as well as some of the best-loved vacation spots. Stylish sophisticated, Vivanta by Taj delivers premium hotel experiences with imagination, energy efficiency. Its the flavor of contemporary luxury, laced with cool informality and the charming Taj hospitality. Vivanta revels in a spirit that presents the normal with an unexpected twist. Experiences which make you pause appreciate the hidden beauty in life! It challenges your expectations of a hotel and unfolds multiple layers of delight. Innovative cuisine concepts, the smart use of technology the challenge to constantly engage, energize and relax you all add up to make Vivanta by Taj the new signature in hospitality. III. The market International Tourism Arrivals to 2020 Source: UNWTO, Global Forecasts and Profiles of Market Segments (Madrid: World Tourism Organization, 2001). p. 3. The UNWTO forecasts that international arrivals are expected to reach nearly 1. 6 billion by the year 2020. Of the worldwide arrivals in 2020, 1. 2 billion are projected to be intraregional and 378 million to be long-haul travelers. The total tourist arrivals by region show that in 2020 the top three receiving regions will be Europe (717 million tourist arrivals), East Asia and the Pacific (397 million) and the Americas (282 million), followed by Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. Although Europe and North America remain the top destinations in international travel, representing about 65% of all international tourist arrivals, these more mature regions are anticipated to show lower than average growth rates. Europe will maintain the highest share of world arrivals, although there will be a decline from 60% in 1995 to 46% in 2020. East Asia and the Pacific, Asia, the Middle East and Africa, on the other hand are forecast to record growth rates of over 5% per year, compared to the world average of 4. 1%. In addition, the more resource-intensive type of travel, long-haul, is predicted to grow even faster worldwide, at 5. 4% per year over the period 1995-2020, while intra-regional travel is projected to grow at 3. 8%. Table of International Arrivals Forecasts Source: UNWTO, Global Forecasts and Profiles of Market Segments (Madrid: World Tourism Organization, 2001), p. 4. Within this picture, two other tourism trends are particularly important: the role of Ã¢â¬Ëbaby boomersÃ¢â¬â¢ in the U. S. and other developed countries, and the emergence of China as a major actor in tourism. More than ever before, the baby boomer generation (those born between 1946 and 1964)18 is traveling, investing, and living overseas. According to the AARP, two times more baby boomers are traveling than 20 years ago. Some four million (non-military) Americans are living overseas, and 442,000 of these are receiving their social security checks abroad. 19 Several countries in Central America, including Costa Rica, Panama and Belize, have special laws given tax and import duty breaks to attract foreign retirees who chose to live there. Baby boomers will be a particularly potent factor as second home sales continue to increase in parallel with the number of retirees from America and Europe. The retiring baby boomers are driving an explosion of new condominium and vacation home construction in Mexico and Central America, as well as parts of the Mediterranean. The ecological and cultural footprint of vacation homes and expatriate communities can overwhelm local resources and populations Typical retail outlets: In the heart of the town is where most hospitals, businesses, banks, shops and markets are situated. Hence almost all services such as health advice, financial services, or any kind of shopping, are all provided for in the City. There are four main hospitals around the City centre, with many smaller clinics located all around the town and its outskirts. They are the Mombasa hospital, Aga Khan hospital, Pandya Memorial hospital and Coast General hospital. Most hotels have resident doctors and nurses. Financial institutions are located in abundance throughout the center of the town. Barclays Bank, Standard Chartered, and ABN-AMBRO are a few of such banks that can be found. Many other internationally-based banks also have their branches in Mombasa. Foreign exchange bureaus are also available and offer attractive exchange rates for all currencies The Product: Ã¢â¬Å"Vivanta by Taj- Sea ShellÃ¢â¬ . A fresh new way to holiday Quick Peek Vivanta By Taj Sea shell, Mombassa has all the exotic ocean views and dramatic sunsets that are de rigueur for any tropical holiday. The twist comes when you step into your villa and instead of the usual beach dcor, find a streamlined, sophisticated take on resort accommodations. Vivanta by Taj has revamped the resort experience from stem to stern and offers the ideal escape at a stunning value proposition. Divers, beach bunnies, and honeymooners we welcome you at Vivanta by Taj Sea Shell. The resort is a divers dream destination with numerous diving sites and its very own reef and shipwreck to explore. For those that prefer to stay on land, the view of the lagoon dotted with water villas is hypnotic. No matter where you travelled from, your world is about to become filled with white sand and magnificent coconut palms. Let Vivanta by Taj introduce you to bliss. Retreat: Relax. Refresh This trip to the beach will be elegant yet rustic. Vivanta by Taj believes in watching sunsets in style. The newly redesigned accommodation at Vivanta by Taj Sea Shell is modern and spacious. Guests can choose Superior Charm or Deluxe Delight thatched Beach Villas with large beachside porticos, Premium Indulgence Water Villas, with private decks looking out to the lagoon and Presidential Nirvana Beach Suites with private outdoor plunge pool and sun deck. Suite guests are treated to personalized butler service. All offer unrivalled views of the sea and outdoor shower areas for private relaxation. Vivanta by Taj Sea Shell offers high-tech connectivity with a view. Each Villa is equipped with a fully integrated, LCD TV, home theatre surround sound system with an iPod docker and high speed Internet. Get away from it all or stay plugged in. Its up to you. Very modern. Very in. Fine tune the way you want to stay. Make the most. Without a doubt, the Villas are amazing, but if you dont take advantage of our other experiences youre only sampling part of the Vivanta by Taj Ã¢â¬â Sea Shell experience. Our amazing excursions, Jiva Spa, infinity pool and persuasive leisure options are simply too special to be missed. Take us up on our offerings and enjoy the full spectrum of brilliant possibilities. Get the whole experience in all. WORK PLAY 1)Excursions Delicious cuisine. Uninterrupted, panoramic views. Total privacy. And yet, there is an entire Island to explore. When you are ready to venture beyond this haven of peace and tranquility, Vivanta by Taj Ã¢â¬â Sea Shell offers a diverse range of escapes and experiences. The excursions below have been carefully selected for certain fixed days and times of the week to be able to provide the best possible experience for our guests. Timings are not variable as they are dependent on various external factors. 2)Fitness Centre Stay energized. Work up a sweat. Cool down. Stretch out. The Vivanta by Taj Fitness Centre has everything you need to meet your health and fitness requirements on the go. 3)Leisure What would you like to do today? Laze by the pool? Snorkel? Plan the most romantic evening youve ever had? Whether its adventurous or elaborate, we can arrange it.